Monday, 6 August 2012

COMPUTER HISTORY AND GENERATION



                                      COMPUTER HISTORY AND GENERATIONS


The history of computer development is often referred to in reference to the different generation of computer device. Each generation  of computer characterized by major technological generation development that fundamentally change the way computer operated, resulting in increase smaller, cheaper, more powerful and efficient reliable device.

FIRST GENERATION (1940-1956) - VACUUM TUBESVacuum tubes is an electronic tube is of glass used as a computer component to store and process data. The problem of vacuum tubes is are generates lots of heat that can damage computer and tubes can burnt out frequently. ENIAC  is firt generation computer that contains weight of 30 tons, 18000 vacuum tubes, 30-50 foot space and 16000 watts of power. The advantages of this computer is can stare and process data.


SECOND GENERATION (1956-1963) - TRANSISTORSTransistors is small device that transfer electronic signal across resistor. One transistor replaced the equivalent of 40 vacuum tubes. Transistors do not produce a lot of heats and use less power. Transistors were smaller, cheaper, faster and more reliable than vacuum tubes. The advantages is using transistors is better than vacuum tubes. 


THIRD GENERATION (1964-1971) -INTEGRATED CIRCUITS Integrated circuits is (IC) is a completed electronic circuit in a small chip made from silicon and more reliable and compact than first and second generation computer. The cost is less to manufacture. The advantages is reliable, compact, and cheaper than transistors and vacuum tubes.


FOURTH GENERATION (1971-PRESENT) - MICROPROCESSORMicroprocessor is equivalent of thousands of integrated circuits and could now fit in palm of the hand. Intel 4004 chip, developed in 1971, located in all component computers. The advantages is  100 times smaller than ENIAC computer in first generation. 


FIFTH GENERATION (PRESENT AND BEYOND) - ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENT Fifth generation computer device, based on artificial intelligent, are still in developed, though there are some application, such as voice recognition, that are being used today.





                                           COMPUTER OF CLASSIFICATION



Super computer
The biggest in size and it is the most expensive in price than any other is classified and known as super computer.Next, it is process trillions of instructions in seconds. Governments specially use this type of computer for their different calculations and heavy jobs.Super computer not used as a PC in a home neither by a student in a college.Most in Hollywood movies used in animation purposes. The kind of computer also helpful for forecasting weather reports worldwide.


Mainframes
Another giant in computers after the super computer and process millions of instruction per second and capable of accessing billions of data. This computer used in big hospitals, air line reservations companies, and many other huge companies because its capability of retrieving data on a huge basis. Normally to expensive and this kind of computer can cost up to thousands of dollars to buy it.

Minicomputer
This computer is next in he line but less offers less than mainframe in work and performance. These are the computers, which are mostly preferred by the small type of business personals, colleges, etc.


Personal computers
Almost all the computer users are familiar with the personal computers preferred by the home users.The computers is lesser in cost than Minicomputer, Mainframes, Super computer and  small in size, they are also called PCs in short for Personal computers. Then, easily arrange it to fit in your single bedroom with its all accommodation.

Notebook computers
Having a small size and low weight the notebook is easy to carry to anywhere. This is easy to carry around and preferred by students and business people to meet their assignments and other necessary tasks. This computer is also the same as the Personal computer. It can store the same amount of data and having a memory of the same size as that of a personal computer.





                                          COMPUTER COMPONENT



Computers are made of the following basic components:
1.     Case with hardware inside:

*     Power Supply - The power supply comes with the case, but this component is mentioned separately since there are various types of power supplies. The one you should get depends on the requirements of your system. This will be discussed in more detail later
*     Motherboard - This is where the core components of your computer reside which are listed below. Also the support cards for video, sound, networking and more are mounted into this board.

-     Microprocessor - This is the brain of your computer. It performs commands and instructions and controls the operation of the computer.
-     Memory - The RAM in your system is mounted on the motherboard. This is memory that must be powered on to retain its contents.
-     Drive controllers - The drive controllers control the interface of your system to your hard drives. The controllers let your hard drives work by controlling their operation. On most systems, they are included on the motherboard, however you may add additional controllers for faster or other types of drives.

*     Hard disk drive(s) - This is where your files are permanently stored on your computer. Also, normally, your operating system is installed here.
*     CD-ROM drive(s) - This is normally a read only drive where files are permanently stored. There are now read/write CD-ROM drives that use special software to allow users to read from and write to these drives.
*     Floppy drive(s) - A floppy is a small disk storage device that today typically has about 1.4 Megabytes of memory capacity.
*     Other possible file storage devices include DVD devices, Tape backup devices, and some others.

2.     Monitor - This device which operates like a TV set lets the user see how the computer is responding to their commands.
3.     Keyboard - This is where the user enters text commands into the computer.
4.     Mouse - A point and click interface for entering commands which works well in graphical environments.























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