COMPUTER HISTORY AND GENERATIONS The history of computer development is often referred to in reference to the different generation of computer device. Each generation of computer characterized by major technological generation development that fundamentally change the way computer operated, resulting in increase smaller, cheaper, more powerful and efficient reliable device.
FIRST GENERATION (1940-1956) - VACUUM TUBESVacuum tubes is an electronic tube is of glass used as a computer component to store and process data. The problem of vacuum tubes is are generates lots of heat that can damage computer and tubes can burnt out frequently. ENIAC is firt generation computer that contains weight of 30 tons, 18000 vacuum tubes, 30-50 foot space and 16000 watts of power. The advantages of this computer is can stare and process data.
SECOND GENERATION (1956-1963) - TRANSISTORSTransistors is small device that transfer electronic signal across resistor. One transistor replaced the equivalent of 40 vacuum tubes. Transistors do not produce a lot of heats and use less power. Transistors were smaller, cheaper, faster and more reliable than vacuum tubes. The advantages is using transistors is better than vacuum tubes.
THIRD GENERATION (1964-1971) -INTEGRATED CIRCUITS Integrated circuits is (IC) is a completed electronic circuit in a small chip made from silicon and more reliable and compact than first and second generation computer. The cost is less to manufacture. The advantages is reliable, compact, and cheaper than transistors and vacuum tubes.
FOURTH GENERATION (1971-PRESENT) - MICROPROCESSORMicroprocessor is equivalent of thousands of integrated circuits and could now fit in palm of the hand. Intel 4004 chip, developed in 1971, located in all component computers. The advantages is 100 times smaller than ENIAC computer in first generation.
FIFTH GENERATION (PRESENT AND BEYOND) - ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENT Fifth generation computer device, based on artificial intelligent, are still in developed, though there are some application, such as voice recognition, that are being used today.
COMPUTER OF CLASSIFICATION
computer The biggest in size and it is the most
expensive in price than any other is classified and known as super computer.Next, it is process
trillions of instructions in seconds. Governments specially use this
type of computer for their different calculations and heavy jobs.Super computer not used
as a PC in a home neither by a student in a college.Most in Hollywood movies used in animation purposes. The kind of computer also helpful for forecasting weather reports worldwide.
Mainframes Another giant in computers
after the super computer and process millions of instruction per second and
capable of accessing billions of data. This computer used in big hospitals, air line
reservations companies, and many other huge companiesbecause its capability of
retrieving data on a huge basis. Normally to expensive and this kind of
computer can cost up to thousands of dollars to buy it.
This computer is next in he line but less
offers less than mainframe in work and performance. These are the computers,
which are mostly preferred by the small type of business personals, colleges,
computers Almost all the computer users
are familiar with the personal computers preferred by the home users.The computers is lesser
in cost than Minicomputer, Mainframes, Super computer and small in size, they are also called
PCs in short for Personal computers. Then, easily arrange it to fit in your
single bedroom with its all accommodation. Notebook
computers Having a small size and
low weight the notebook is easy to carry to anywhere. This is easy to carry
around and preferred by students and business people to meet their assignments
and other necessary tasks. This computer is also the same as the
Personal computer. It can store the same amount of data and having a memory of
the same size as that of a personal computer.
Computers are made of the following basic components:
1. Case with hardware
* Power Supply - The power supply
comes with the case, but this component is mentioned separately since there are
various types of power supplies. The one you should get depends on the
requirements of your system. This will be discussed in more detail later
* Motherboard - This is where
the core components of your computer reside which are listed below. Also the
support cards for video, sound, networking and more are mounted into this
- Microprocessor - This is the
brain of your computer. It performs commands and instructions and controls the
operation of the computer.
- Memory - The RAM in your
system is mounted on the motherboard. This is memory that must be powered on to
retain its contents.
- Drive controllers - The drive
controllers control the interface of your system to your hard drives. The
controllers let your hard drives work by controlling their operation. On most
systems, they are included on the motherboard, however you may add additional
controllers for faster or other types of drives.
* Hard disk drive(s) - This is where
your files are permanently stored on your computer. Also, normally, your
operating system is installed here.
* CD-ROM drive(s) - This is normally
a read only drive where files are permanently stored. There are now read/write
CD-ROM drives that use special software to allow users to read from and write
to these drives.
* Floppy drive(s) - A floppy is a
small disk storage device that today typically has about 1.4 Megabytes of
* Other possible file
storage devices include DVD devices, Tape backup devices, and some others.
2. Monitor - This device
which operates like a TV set lets the user see how the computer is responding
to their commands.
3. Keyboard - This is where
the user enters text commands into the computer.
4. Mouse - A point and
click interface for entering commands which works well in graphical